Puffin Web Browser 9.4.1.51004 by CloudMosa Inc

2021.10.25 01:28 APKMirrorBOT Puffin Web Browser 9.4.1.51004 by CloudMosa Inc

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2021.10.25 01:28 gerzzy Nestled (X-T3, 70-300)

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2021.10.25 01:28 matchasnowbubble 6 days in and still no anomaly 💔

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2021.10.25 01:28 APKMirrorBOT Plex: Stream Movies & Live TV 8.25.0.28578 beta by Plex, Inc.

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2021.10.25 01:28 mcfrogboi I (18F) have a difficult ex-boyfriend (25M) and I'm kind just wondering what I need to do?

We were together for eight months. We had plans to move in together and get married in Oregon (I live in San Diego, he lives out of his car). While we together we lived out of his Prius and hotel rooms while travelling constantly. He was emotionally abusive as all hell and our relationship ended while I was voluntarily admitted to a psychiatric hospital for depression. I got to a point where all I thought about was dying and it really seemed like the only way out of my situation. My family was not happy with our relationship and I didn't think I could go back to them.
We split in July. Since then he's done a lot of fucked up stuff. He sent screenshots of sexts to my other ex-boyfriend, met the guy in a Denny's in the middle of the night, posted a bunch of rants on his Facebook page accusing my family of stalking him, blamed me for 2-3 separate suicide "attempts" publicly, moved to my city a few months after the breakup despite not having any work here and still living out of hotels, and a bunch more. I've tried filing a restraining order and nobody can find him to serve him the papers so we can't move forward with a hearing.
At this point I don't really even care about the restraining order or him. He does stuff now and I'm not even surprised. Any strong positive or negative feelings I had are just gone. But he's obsessive and has nothing to do but obsess all day. He has no friends, no hobbies, multiple brain injuries, untreated mental illness up the wazoo, and lives out of his car. Both his brother and my other ex-boyfriend said that when they talked to him all he would talk about was me.
I've re-enrolled in school to finish my associates and transfer to a university next fall, started working out again, and I've been hanging out with some people I met a couple months ago. I can see myself moving forward and improving, but I don't see the same for him.
What does this situation look like in 5 years? For anyone else that had a similar relationship at my age, what happens long term? Ideally he'd just disappear but I don't know if that's what happens.
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2021.10.25 01:28 jackiewiebe anyone wanna do cayo on repeat ps4

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2021.10.25 01:28 caroliineuwu Why is this snail everywhere !!!

I keep seeing that snail everywhere how do I get rid of it for the next couple of years again? :(
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2021.10.25 01:28 APKMirrorBOT Archero 3.4.0 by Habby

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2021.10.25 01:28 xjashumonx AMD Software Went Missing After Update

It doesn't appear in the start menu or anywhere else, nor when I right click on desktop. It's totally gone now. I've already done a total clean reinstall of the latest drivers and everything.
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2021.10.25 01:28 SantiagoPepenador What are the best ways to keep on contact with friends or people you don’t know via text?

Yeah, I’ve some problems keeping up with friends. They never write me and I never write them, so sometimes I feel alone. I want to improve in this aspect as I know I’m lacking in it. Is sending memes or funny posts a good way? What could I talk about with him?
Thanks in advance
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2021.10.25 01:28 lewdfocker1 Just curious, between these 4 pics, which is the hottest? 😬

Just curious, between these 4 pics, which is the hottest? 😬 submitted by lewdfocker1 to GayRateMe [link] [comments]


2021.10.25 01:28 RedditorDoomham update on my post about texting my crush

HE SAW IT OMFG. he’s cool about it tho :3
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2021.10.25 01:28 Capital-Mycologist39 Need a card?

Anyone in need a vaccination card? As School / Work / Flights & Public Place mandates all over the world are getting stricter. It’s the best time to secure yourself from the unfair consequences of not having one. If you wanna keep your job, stay in school, or catch that flight . Hit > https://t.me/VaccineCardCentral for a Vax Card & #FuckThatJab
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2021.10.25 01:28 Cheeky_Salad Having a brain melt moment

Bruhhhhhhhhhhh
My brain is going at 10 gazillion mph and it won’t slow down lmao
I keep stuttering and i absolutely hate the guy who invented the letter “I” whether they were Phoenician, Egyptian, or if they were a Canaanite, either way screw you inventor of “I”
Now my head hurts and I hate it so much mannnnn.
I can’t bloody sleep aswell like ugh I wanna just die rn ughhh
Please if you have any calming music or some politically charged rock music please share
Ik that was specific but just please I needa hear smth I like.
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2021.10.25 01:28 MHF_1822 Does anyone agree?

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2021.10.25 01:28 APKMirrorBOT Bixby Vision 3.7.37.32 by Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.

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2021.10.25 01:28 Prashant_4200 Features Request: Dynamic hosting.

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2021.10.25 01:28 APKMirrorBOT Aldiko 4.3.5 by De Marque

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2021.10.25 01:28 TribeofYHWH Translation, Comments, and the Individuality of Servant of the Lord in Second Isaiah (40-55): An Analysis

Introduction:
Isaiah 52:13-53:12 is the last of four Servant Songs (42:1–9; 49:1–6; 50:4–11; 52:13–53:12), which are four discrete poetic units that nevertheless function seamlessly within the larger literary context of chapters 40–55, which is almost universally seen by Atheist, Jewish, and Christian scholars alike as being written by a second author at the end of the Babylonian exile (or just after) - Second Isaiah. One of the most sought after questions regarding the Servant Songs in Deutero-Isaiah is the identity of the Servant. Who is it? Any exegetical method that involves deleting "Israel" out of Isaiah 49:3 and separating the Servant's identity with "Israel" is mistaken. However, while the Servant is identified as Jacob-Israel outside of the Songs (Isaiah 41:8, 9; 43:10; 44:1, 2, 21; 45:4; 48:20), the nation of Israel is revealed within the dynamic movement of the Servant Songs as being embodied in a suffering individual figure who has been divinely commissioned to the task of delivering Israel (as a collective) and the nations at large. In other words, the Servant never departs from being Israel, but "Israel" undergoes an extreme reduction within Second Isaiah, and it seems to me that it's reduced to one person. To put this argument another way, Childs writes that: "it's crucial to realize that the Servant does not replace corporate Israel—the servant in Second Isaiah remains inseparable from Israel—but is a faithful embodiment of the nation Israel who has not performed its chosen role (48:1–2)" (Brevard S. Childs, Isaiah, pp. 541 [kindle version]). For more on Isaiah 48:1-2, see below. Joseph Blenkinsopp (who thinks the Servant is Deutero-Isaiah in Isaiah 53) affirms that the view that the Servant is an individual is a common one in scholarship when he writes: "ever since Christopher R. North surveyed the range of opinion on the identity of the Servant in 1948 (2d ed., 1956), no significant new options have emerged. While there was then and still is a strong critical preference for an individual rather than a collective interpretation, none of the fifteen individuals named as candidates by one commentator or another and listed by North has survived scrutiny" (Joseph Blenkinsopp, Isaiah 40-55, pp. 355).

Translation, Comments, and the Individuality of the Servant:

See, my servant [1] shall succeed; he shall be exalted and lifted up, and shall be very high [2]. Just as there were many who were astonished at him—so marred was his appearance, beyond human semblance, and his form beyond that of mortals [3]—so he shall sprinkle [4] many nations; kings shall shut their mouths because of him; for that which had not been told them they shall see, and that which they had not heard they shall contemplate. Who has believed what we [5] have heard? And to whom has the arm of the Lord been revealed? For he grew up before him like a tender shoot, and like a root out of dry ground; he had no form or majesty that we should look at him, nothing in his appearance that we should desire him. He was despised and rejected by others; a man of pains and acquainted with sickness; and like the hiding of the face for him [6], he was despised, and we held him of no account. Surely he has borne our infirmities and carried our diseases; yet we accounted him stricken [7], struck down by God, and afflicted. But he was pierced [or wounded] [8] fobecause of our transgressions, crushed fobecause of our iniquities; upon him was the punishment that made us whole, and by his bruises we are healed. All we like sheep have gone astray; we have all turned to our own way, and the Lord has laid on him the iniquity of us all. He was oppressed, and he was afflicted, yet he did not open his mouth; like a lamb that is led to the slaughter [9], and like a sheep that before its shearers is silent, so he did not open his mouth. By a perversion of justice he was taken away. Yet who of his generation even considered that he was cut off from the land of the living, stricken for the transgression of my people [10] a stroke to him [11]? They made his grave with the wicked and with a rich man in his death [12], although he had done no violence, and there was no deceit in his mouth. Yet it was the will of the Lord to crush him with weakness [or sickness]. When [13] you make his life a guilt offering [14], he shall see offspring [15], and shall prolong days; and through him the will of the Lord shall prosper. Out of his anguish he shall see light [16]; he shall find satisfaction through his knowledge. The righteous one [17], my servant, shall make many righteous, and he shall bear their iniquities. Therefore I will allot him a portion with the many, and he shall divide the spoil with the strong [18]; because he poured out his life/soul to death [19], and was numbered with the transgressors; yet he bore the sin of many, and made intercession for the transgressors.
[1] Many scholars believe that the "Servant" of Isaiah 42 is not the same "Servant" as Isaiah 49, 50, and 52-53. Jaap Dekker for example thinks that the Servant transforms into an individual from Isaiah 49 onwards (see Jaap Dekker, “The Servant and the Servants in the Book of Isaiah,” Sárospataki Füzetek 16/3-4, 2012, pp. 37-41) but writes that the individual view for Isaiah 42:1-9 "isolates this text from its context within the book and is based on an outdated paradigm. There is no compelling reason to think that the Servant in Isa 42:1 would be an other than the Israel already mentioned" (ibid., pp. 37). However, there is a disastrous lapse in Dekker's logic on this point. The Servant does not become an individual figure from the second Song forward. The Servant is explicitly revealed as an individual figure from the second Song forward. If he is revealed as an individual figure in the second Song forward, then this logically entails that he is an individual figure in all the Songs. In addition, the opening of Isaiah 52:13-53:12 itself says "my Servant," which strongly echoes the opening of the first Song (42:1a). This and other literary connections give the Servant Songs “the impressive unity of a great cathedral” (North, Suffering Servant, pp. 188).
[2] Wilcox and Paton Williams observe: "throughout Isaiah 1–66, the adjectives “exalted”, “lifted up” and “very high” are virtually technical terms, applied almost exclusively to Yahweh" (Peter Wilcox and David Paton-Williams, ‘The Servant Songs in Deutero-Isaiah’, JSOT 42 [1988], pp. 95). Richard Bauckham (and others) convincingly argues that Isaiah 52:13 and 57:15 is dependent on Isaiah 6:1 (cf. Bauckham, Jesus And The God Of Israel, pp. 47-51), and he thinks that the Servant is equated with YHWH. See Daniel J. Brendsel "The Servant and Jesus’ Hour to Be Lifted Up and Glorified, "in "Isaiah Saw His Glory": The Use of Isaiah 52-53 in John 12, Berlin, München, Boston: De Gruyter, 2014, pp. 143 to see why Isaiah 52:13 and 57:15 most certainly depends on Isaiah 6:1. So Jaap Dekker writes: “the intertextual connection with 6.1 reveals that the Servant is granted the highest possible position, which according to the book of Isaiah, however, exclusively belongs Holy One Himself. Especially Ch. 2 of the book extensively describes the divine prerogative to be exalted (2.11, 17). Therefore, the Day of the Lord is and against all that is lifted up and high (2.12; 2.11a, 17a; 10:12). The Hebrew word used within this chapter are not always the same, but in any case, the verbs וָרָ֑ם and גֵּאֶ֖ה occur several times together (2.12, 13, 14). The theology of these text is clear and unambiguous. Being high and lofty (2.11, 17; 6:11) or arising and lifting oneself up (33.10; cf. 30.18) are only apropos of God and are not appropriate for any earthly power whatsoever (cf. 14.13; see also 37.23)” (Jaap Dekker, “The High and Lofty One Dwelling in the Heights and with his Servants: Intertextual Connections of Theological Significance between Isaiah 6, 53 and 57,” Journal for the Study of the Old Testament, 2017, pp. 485-86). Thus, the Servant shares the glory of YHWH which however only belonged to God in Second Isaiah (Isaiah 42:8; 48:11). ‘I will give my glory to no other." Yet in Isaiah 52:13, Mark Gignilliat writes that: "the Servant is narratively depicted as one who is sharing in what belongs to YHWH alone, that is, his glory" (Mark Gignilliat "Who is Isaiah's Servant? Narrative identity and theological potentiality," Scottish Journal of Theology, 2008, pp. 132). Interestingly, Dekker thinks this sharing of YHWH's glory separates the Servant from Israel's people. Jaap Dekker writes that the: "sharing in the divine prerogative of the sovereign God make it less likely that the suffering Servant of Isaiah 53 can be identified with Israel returning from Exile or with Miss Zion . . . In the book of Isaiah great things are being said concerning Israel and the destiny of Zion, yet nowhere is it said that they are lifted up to the level of the Holy One Himself or equated with the Lord of hosts with regards to his loftiness . . . The exaltation of the Servant of Isaiah 53 to the divine position of God himself demonstrates that he is a completely unique figure who is not to be equated with previously mentioned servant Israel or with a part of it or with Zion” (Jaap Dekker, “The High and Lofty One Dwelling in the Heights and with his Servants: Intertextual Connections of Theological Significance between Isaiah 6, 53 and 57,” Journal for the Study of the Old Testament, 2017, pp. 486-87).
[3] Isaiah 52:14 alludes to the suffering the Servant goes through later in the very same song (e.g., "stricken," "smitten," "afflicted," "pierced," "crushed," "punishment," "wounds," etc.). This verse also may emphasize the un-kingly and lowly stature of the Servant. In Isaiah 52:14, the Servant's "form" is marred - beyond human semblance (52:14). See also the use of the word "form" in Isaiah 53:2. In contrast, David was literally "a man of form" (1 Sam 16:18), and the Psalmists suggest that the King needs to be "fairer than the sons of men." Isaiah 33:17 also says: "your eyes will see the king in his beauty." So, this verse may be making a distinction between the Servant from the typical expectation of what a king was supposed to be by contrasting their appearance, using hyperbolic language (common in ancient poetic and prophetic Jewish literature).
[4] There is much scholarly disagreement as to whether yazzeh denotes a "sprinkling" or a "startling." For scholars who think it denotes a sprinkling (or "splattering/spattering"), see James Muilenburg, Isaiah, Chapters 40-66 (The Interpreter's Bible, Vol. 5; New York/Nashville, 1956), pp. 517-518; H.W. Hertzberg, “Die ‘Abtrünnigen’ und die ‘Vielen’: Ein Beitrag zu Jes 53,” Verbannung und Heimkehr (FS W. Rudolph; ed. J. Kuschke; Tübingen: MohSiebeck, 1961), pp. 103; Ronald Bergey, "The Rhetorical Role Of Reiteration In The Suffering Servant Poem (Isa 52:13-53:12)," JETS 40/2 (June 1997), pp. 182; Klaus Baltzer, Deutero-Isaiah: A Commentary on Isaiah 40-55 (Hermeneia; Minneapolis: Fortress, 2001), pp. 400; M. Goulder, “Behold My Servant Jehoiachin.” Vetus Testamentum, vol. 52, no. 2, Brill, 2002, pp. 179; Payne and Goldingay, Isaiah 40-55, pp. 294-295; Jim W. Adams, The Performative Nature And Function of Isaiah 40-55, Bloomsbury, 2006, pp. 173, 177; Gabriela Ivana Vlková, "Interpreting Ambiguity The Beginning of the “Song of the Suffering Servant” (Isa 52:13–15) and its Translations," 2016, pp. 283 (very tentatively); Jacob Stromberg, "A Covenantal Community and a New Creation after the Flood The Wise in Daniel 11–12 and the Servants of the Lord in Isaiah," in Isaiah's Servants in Early Judaism and Christianity: The Isaian Servant and the Exegetical Formation of Community Identity, Mohr Siebeck, 2021, pp. 67; William A. Tooman, "The Servant-Messiah and the Messiah’s Servants in Targum Jonathan Isaiah," in Isaiah's Servants in Early Judaism and Christianity: The Isaian Servant and the Exegetical Formation of Community Identity, Mohr Siebeck, 2021, pp. 322. The arguments for "startle" or "leap up" (see e.g., Joseph Blenkinsopp, J.L. Koole, Brevard S. Childs) are mostly speculative and weak, whereas the arguments for the translation "sprinkle" are primarily based off of solid and existing datums/evidence. The Hiphil always denotes a sprinkling. "Most . . . versions" also support the translation argued here (see the explicit assertion for this in William A. Tooman, ""The Servant-Messiah and the Messiah’s Servants in Targum Jonathan Isaiah," in Isaiah's Servants in Early Judaism and Christianity, Mohr Siebeck, 2021, pp. 322): Aquila and Theodotion ('sprinkle'), Vulgate asperget ('sprinkle'), the Peshitta mdk' ('purify'). William A. Tooman argues that the: "Aramaic בד״ר, “scatter” [in Targum Jonathan] appears to be an attempt to render the sense of Hebrew נז״ה, “sprinkle, splatter,” understood as a metaphor" (2021, pp. 322; see also Gabriela Ivana Vlková, "Interpreting Ambiguity The Beginning of the “Song of the Suffering Servant” (Isa 52:13–15) and its Translations," 2016, pp. 283). Gabriela Ivana Vlková also suggests that Symmachos rendered the sprinkling "metaphorically" (ibid., 280): “he will disperse” (ἀποβαλεῖ). William A. Tooman notes that "most texts" (2021, pp. 322) support a sprinkling, e.g., our earliest witnesses such as 1QIsa, 1QIsb. "Startle" might be supported by the LXX ('will be astonished'), but, as Goldingay points out: "the latter is as likely a loose translation" (Isaiah 40-55, pp. 295). Many scholars relate yazzeh to Arab. nazâ (to spring up, leap), and translate it as "startle." Yet, in any case, this is wrong. As Goulder points out in his 2002 VT article, (a) outside of this passage in question (namely, Isaiah 52:15), the use of this Arabic root is unattested in the entire Hebrew Bible (or indeed in ancient Hebrew in general, as Goldingay asserts in his commentary on Isaiah 40-55, pp. 295), and (b) the "Arabic term from which it derives denotes physical leaping with no necessary connotations of emotional surprise" (Goulder 2002, pp. 179). The typical arguments against the form of yazzeh being an Hiphil imperfect of nazah, meaning ‘to sprinkle’ (which it means everywhere else in the Hebrew Bible) are: (a) the lack of a substance in the accusative, and (b) the lack of 'al or some such preposition, but rather an anomalous usage where the nations are the direct object of the verb. However, the argument based off the lack of these features is at once rendered weak (especially in light of the above) when we realize that we are dealing with poetry. Additionally, Leviticus 4:6, 17 may be examples of cases where the object or person sprinkled is the direct object of the verb instead of being indicated by a prepositional phrase (so Adams, Payne/Goldingay, Gentry, etc), though the text there is difficult. "It has been suggested that the Servant’s “sprinkling” of the nations implies the redemptive significance of his work in their behalf" (James P. Ware, Paul and the Mission of the Church, Philippians in Ancient Jewish Context, 2011, pp. 588, n. 110).
[5] Isaiah 52:13-52:15 is a YHWH speech. Here in 53:1ff. the speaker shifts. The Israelites now speak. "Whenever the pronouns ‘we,’ ‘our,’ or ‘us’ are introduced abruptly, as in 53:1ff. (that is, without an explicit identification of the speakers, as in 2:3; 3:6; 4:1; etc.), it is always the prophet speaking on behalf of the people of Israel with whom he identifies (1:9f.; 16:6; 24:26; 33:2, 20; 42:24; 59:9-12; 63:15-19; 64:3-11; etc.) . . . Consistent with this observation, other considerations support an interpretation of the ‘we’ in 53:6 as a reference to Israel, with whom the prophet identifies: ‘All we like sheep have gone astray; we have all turned to our own way, and Yahweh has laid on him the iniquity of us all.’ There are well known parallels for the comparison between Israel and sheep who have gone astray: Psalm 95:7-10; 119:176; Jeremiah 50:6" (G.P. Hugenberger, “The Servant of the Lord in the ‘Servant Songs’ of Isaiah: A Second Moses Figure,” pp. 6-7). While there are verbal and conceptual links between 52:15 and 53:1, causing some scholars to think that the nations and kings of Isaiah 52:15 speak here, there is an important point of contrast, as J.L. Koole writes: “Those referred to in [52:15] have not ‘heard’, while the speakers of 53:1 have” (J.L. Koole, Isaiah 49-55, pp. 275). In support of the Israelites speaking here, and not the nations, is that “we” refers to the prophet on behalf of Israel elsewhere in Isaiah (see, e. g., 16:6; 24:16; 42:24; 64:4–5), as noted by John Oswalt. Most weighty is Brevard S. Childs' observation, which is that: "the confessing ‘we’ of the Old Testament is always Israel and not the nations (Hos. 6:1ff.; Jer. 3:21ff.; Dan. 9:4ff.)" (Brevard S. Childs, Isaiah, pp. 581 [kindle version]). As you may have noticed, if the speaker is the people of Israel in the body of the poem, the Servant can't be the people of Israel at the same time!
[6] The JPS translates Isaiah 53:3b ("as one who hid his face from us"). However, this must face the difficulty that the Servant categorically denies that he hid his face from people (Isaiah 50:6: "I did not hide my face from insult and spitting," NRSV). The people who hid their faces are the speakers - the Israelites (for this conclusion, see the discussion in J.L. Koole, Isaiah 49-55, pp. 286-287).
[7] According to J.L. Koole, "most exegetes" think that the meaning of the word "נָג֛וּעַ" was used broadly (J.L. Koole, Isaiah 49-55, pp. 291). Koole also writes that the verb is only used to "refer to leprosy only when it is explicitly mentioned . . . in the context" (ibid.). So, the Servant wasn't a leper, but somebody who YHWH brought great suffering.
[8] According to Kristin Joachimsen: "לָלֹחְמ is most often taken to be חלל II “pierce”, cf. Isa. 51:9" (Kristin Joachimsen, Identities in Transition: the Pursuit of Isa. 52:13-53:12, Brill Academic Publishers, 2011, pp. 113, n. 95).
[9] This clause is a clue to the sacrificial analogy found in Isaiah 52:13-53:12: "He was led like a lamb to the slaughter, like a ewe that is dumb before its shearers." Joseph Blenkinsopp writes that: "the lamb is one of the animals most acceptable for sacrifice, including the Passover sacrifice" (Joseph Blenkinsopp, "The Sacrificial Life and Death of the Servant (Isaiah 52:13-53:12)," Vetus Testamentum 66, 2016, pp. 7). The אשׁם in the Levitical laws about sacrifice included lambs.
[10] The words, “he was cut off . . . for the transgression of my people [or his people]” (53:8), distinguishes the Servant from “my people” or "his people," which refers to the people of Israel in the context of Isaiah. An identification of the Servant with Israel's people is excluded because of this, assuming this is what the original text said. G.P. Hugenberger writes: "this conclusion holds whether or not one chooses to emend the MT, ‘my people' to read ‘his people' with 1QIsaa" (G.P. Hugenberger, “The Servant of the Lord in the ‘Servant Songs’ of Isaiah: A Second Moses Figure,” pp. 6). In the context prior to Isaiah 53, "my people," always (except one instance) refers to Israel or it's people (Isaiah 1:3; 3:12, 15; 5:13; 10:2, 24; 14:25; 21:10; 22:4; 26:20; 32:13, 18; 40:1; 43:20; 47:6; 51:4; 52:4, 5, 6), and it always does in Second Isaiah (40-55). Likewise, "his people" always refers to Israel or it's people in the context of Isaiah (e.g., 3:14 5:25; 7:2; 11:11, 16; 14:32; 25:8; 28:5; 30:26; 49:13; 51:22; 52:9). So "he" is the Servant in Isaiah 53:8, whereas "my people" or "his people" is Israel's people, thus distinguishing the Servant from Israel's people.
[11] Simon J. Joseph in his book Jesus and the Temple (The Crucifixion in its Jewish Context) || The Dying Savior (2016) argues that: "In Isa 53:8 “my people” (עמי) refers to iniquities inflicted on Israel. When Isaiah shifts back to the plural (למו: “them”) in 53:8, it is a reference to Israel. The implication in the NRSV is that it is an individual who is afflicted (“he was stricken”) whereas in the MT, למו may be a synonym for להם meaning “them,” “fofrom them,” or “to them,” suggesting that it is the nation (Israel) that is stricken. Indeed, the word is translated usually as a plural form..." (pp. 224). However, the latter portion of v. 8 is (famously, notoriously) textually uncertain, with different readings in the MT, LXX, and 1QIsaiah from Qumran. Despite this, almost all would agree with Childs on this verse: "In sum, it is unwise to be dogmatic on any one textual reading, but the general sense of the sentence is clear from the context as a whole" (Brevard S. Childs, Isaiah, pp. 417). Hebrew grammarians recognize however that the Hebrew word "למו" is not only a plural form, but also as a singular pronoun in texts like Gen. 9:26, 27; Isa. 44:15 ("He fashions an idol and bows down to it" [למו]). See Shalom M. Paul, who translates it in the singular (Isaiah 40-66, pp. 408). The suffix -mo is also used as a singular in Job 20:23; 22:2; and 27:23 (even if with other prepositions). Moreover, it is possible to construe the sentence in question differently, with the people as the reference of lamo, but still obtain a meaning that is very much in line with a singular understanding of the servant in this passage: "... of my people to whom the blow belonged" - but now it has been diverted to him. Given the textual uncertainty, it becomes clear that Joseph’s counter-objection has no force. In any case, verses like v. 4 speak about the tormented Servant in the singular form, and so is the case with this verse as well (cf. J.L. Koole, Isaiah 49-55, pp. 311). Joseph Blenkinsopp also notes that: "mippešaʿ ʿammî negaʿ lāmô, “because of the transgression of my people a blow to them,” is unintelligible" (Joseph Blenkinsopp, Isaiah 40-55, pp. 348).
[12] Simon J. Joseph argues in his book Jesus and the Temple that: "Isa 53:9 uses the plural form for “in his deaths” (במתיו) . . . The Hebrew term for “in his death” would be במותו, not במתיו. If this is the case, then the Servant cannot be an individual, but rather corporate Israel" (pp. 224-225). However, as Hebrew grammarians know, the word for "death" in Hebrew can be used in the plural as an intensive, especially in poetry. And one should note that in Isaiah 53:9, the suffix is still a singular third person suffix. There is a reason why practically every modern translation and every commentary of which I am aware translate and understand this as the singular, "death."
[13] "When" in Isaiah 53:10 is supported by all of the versions except for the Peshitta (cf. Jim W. Adams, The Performative Nature And Function of Isaiah 40-55, Bloomsbury, 2006, pp. 186).
[14] The juxtaposition of the words אשׁם and נפשׁו in 53:10 (“a reparation offering” and “his life”) suggests the sacrifice of a human life (despite textual uncertainties in the surrounding words). See Joseph Blenkinsopp's 2016 article for this point. In addition, the Servant is clearly said to die in the surrounding context. Kristin Joachimsen that "in the Servant Song research, there has been a comprehensive debate whether the servant died or not. Most scholars conclude that the servant did really die" (Kristin Joachimsen, Identities in Transition: the Pursuit of Isa. 52:13-53:12, Brill Academic Publishers, 2011, pp. 328, n. 251). Not only does the Servant die in the context, themes of vicarious suffering is present throughout the poem (נָשָׂא “bear” 53:4, 53:12; סָבַל “carry” 53:4, 53:11b; פָגַע “intervene” 53:12 ). Some try to limit the guilt offering through a supposed "intentional" versus "unintentional" sin dichotomy. Since the speakers intentionally sinned against the Servant (53:6), a guilt offering would be insufficient to expiate said sin, per scholars like Whybray. Jacob Milgrom however has produced the most thorough examination of אשׁם sacrifice and shows that it reduces intentional sins to an inadvertence, thus rendering it eligible for sacrificial expiation. According to Jacob Milgrom, for "involuntary sin . . . or remorse alone suffices, it renders confession superfluous. But for deliberate sins there is the added requirement that remorse be verbalized; the sin must be articulated and responsibly assumed" (Jacob Milgrom, Leviticus 1-16 [The Anchor Yale Bible Commentaries], pp. 109). He continues: "confession [was] a legal device fashioned by the Priestly legislators to convert deliberate sins into inadvertencies, thereby qualifying them for sacrificial expiation" (Milgrom, Leviticus 1-16, pp. 119). Following Milgrom, Jim W. Adams argues that "the Servant's sacrificial death provides for both unintentional and intentional sins . . . Operating through the conventional institution of Yahweh's sacrificial system, the אשׁם provides forgiveness for intentional sins when accompanied by confession" (Jim W. Adams, The Performative Nature And Function of Isaiah 40-55, Bloomsbury, 2006, pp. 205). Confession is the very theme that is present in the body of Isaiah 53.
[15] The "offspring" do not refer to literal children, according to most scholars. As illuminated by the context of Deutero and Trito Isaiah, the offspring are the faithful remnant redeemed by the Servant (cf. J.L. Koole, Isaiah 49-55, pp. 324). After Isaiah 53, they are identified as “servants” (Isaiah 54:17 and after), in the plural (56:6; 63:17; 65:8, 9, 13, 14, 15; 66:14), as well as "offspring." Michael A. Lyons writes:
“It is said that Yhwh's servant . . . will have “offspring” and “make many righteous” (53:10-11). Yet after chap. 53, the figure of the individual servant vanishes from the book and is replaced with descriptions of a community called the “servants” or “offspring" (“Servants,” Isa 54:17; 56:6; 65:8, 9, 13-15; 66:14; “offspring,” Isa 59:21; 61:8-9; 65:9, 23; 66:22. We already see a hint of a community that follows the servant in opposition to one that does not in Isa 50:4-11).”
(Michael A. Lyons, "Psalm 22 and the "Servants" of Isaiah 54; 56-66," The Catholic Biblical Quarterly, 2015, pp. 648).
See also Psalm 22:30 for a use of זֶ֥רַע that does not denote literal children - a text which is based on the Servant Songs (especially the last two) and the passages about the "servants" of the Servant following Isaiah 53 as well. For the same conclusion regarding the זֶ֥רַע of the Servant as followers or servants of the Servant, see e.g., W. A. M. Beuken, “The Main Theme of Trito: “the Servants of Yhwh,” Journal for the Study of the Old Testament, 1990, pp. 67-87; Brevard S. Childs, Isaiah, pp. 419; Mark Gignilliat, Paul and Isaiah's Servants: Paul's Theological Reading of Isaiah 40-66 in 2 Corinthians 5:14-6:10 (The Library of New Testament Studies), 2007, pp. 115-131; Stephen Cook, “An Interpretation of the Death of Isaiah’s Servant,” in The Bible as a Human Witness to Divine Revelation: Hearing the Word of God Through Historically Dissimilar Traditions, New York: T&T Clark, 2010, pp. 112; Joseph Blenkinsopp, "The Sacrificial Life and Death of the Servant (Isaiah 52:13-53:12)," Vetus Testamentum 66, 2016, pp. 4; Jaap Dekker, “The High and Lofty One Dwelling in the Heights and with his Servants: Intertextual Connections of Theological Significance between Isaiah 6, 53 and 57,” Journal for the Study of the Old Testament, 2017, pp. 483-484. A very important and very recent discussion of the "offspring" in 53:10 (and the servants that follow after) that supports this conclusion is Jacob Stromberg's "A Covenantal Community and a New Creation after the Flood: The Wise in Daniel 11–12 and the Servants of the Lord in Isaiah," in Isaiah's Servants in Early Judaism and Christianity: The Isaian Servant and the Exegetical Formation of Community Identity, Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, 2021, pp. 73-82, as well as other essays in that book. Regarding the nature of these "servants" of the Servant, James P. Ware writes that: "this community, the offspring of the Servant, not only follows him [the Servant] but also imitates him, in some mysterious fashion taking up his vocation of suffering, participating in his redemptive mission, and sharing in his victory (Isa 57:1–13; 59:9–21; 65:8–16; 66:1–5). The Servant’s role as a “light to the nations” (42:6; 49:6) is thus taken up and extended by the servants of the Servant (Isa 63:1–3, 19–22; 62:1–3)" - James P. Ware, "The Servants of the Servant in Isaiah and Philippians," in Isaiah's Servants in Early Judaism and Christianity: The Isaian Servant and the Exegetical Formation of Community Identity, Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, 2021, pp. 261. As made evident by Isaiah 56:6-8 (and elsewhere in Trito Isaiah), the "servants" include gentiles: "And the foreigners who join themselves to the Lord, to minister to him, to love the name of the Lord, and to be his servants . . . my house shall be called a house of prayer for all peoples . . . I will gather others to them besides those already gathered' (Is. 56:6-8).
[16] James P. Ware writes: "that the Servant is portrayed in the fourth Song as restored from death to life is recognized by the majority of interpreters. The text is explicit that following his demise the Servant “will prolong days” (53:10) and “will see light” (53:11). [The word] אוׁר (“light”), omitted in MT, is attested by IQIsa-a, IQIsa-b, 4QIsa-d, and LXX, and is doubtless the original reading. References to “light” thus recur in all four Servant poems (42:6; 49:6; 50:10-11; 53:11)" (James P. Ware, Paul and the Mission of the Church, Philippians in Ancient Jewish Context, 2011, pp. 75).
[17] "Righteous one" is the preferred translation given the context (e.g., the following words: 'shall make many righteous'). Additionally, somewhere in the concluding strophe (before the words "my Servant in verse 11), YHWH begins speaking again. The description of the Servant as being righteous (Isaiah 53:11) and untainted with violence or being without deceit (Isaiah 53:9) is impossible to reconcile with the OT's or even Second Isaiah's description of Israel as a nation or a people. As noted by G.P. Hugenberger, “Deutero-Isaiah repeatedly stresses that contemporary Israel is a sinful people who suffer on account of their own transgressions (42:18-25; 43:22-28; 47:7; 48:18f.; 50:1; 54:7; 57:17; 59:2ff.)" (ibid., 4). In 43:22-28, Israel fails to call on the Lord; in 47:6, God is angry with Israel; in 48:1-6; and in 50:1, God’s indictment is forthright: “for your iniquities you were sold, and for your transgressions your mother was sent away." While the Servant opens the eyes of the blind, Jacob-Israel is blind herself (Isaiah 42:18-25). Thus, within the context of Second Isaiah, the Servant cannot be corporate Israel. The point of the remnant being sinful is made clear in texts like 46:3 ("Listen to me . . . all the remnant of the house of Israel"), 8 ("you transgressors"), 12 ("listen to me, you stubborn of heart, you who are far from deliverance"). J.L. Koole makes similar points: "DI's reproaches to the Israel of his day, esp. in chap. 48, are so sharp and so much aimed at the people as a whole, that this "true" Israel has undergone an extreme reduction (Simon, Sawyer) and must, it seems, be confined to an individual" (J.L. Koole, Isaiah 49-55, pp. 11-12).
[18] It has been suggested (e.g., Jim W. Adams) that the spoil that the Servant divides is his exaltation and this unique role in continuing the plan of YHWH. Thus, the "servants" of the Servant participate in the Servant's redemptive mission and shares his victory (see James Ware above).
[19] Kristin Joachimsen writes that: "the majority of exegetes translate the expression הֶעֱרָ֤ה לַמָּ֙וֶת֙ נַפְשׁ֔וֹ as “he poured out his soul to death” or something similar..." (Kristin Joachimsen, Identities in Transition: the Pursuit of Isa. 52:13-53:12, Brill Academic Publishers, 2011, pp. 145). Joseph Blenkinsopp argues that: "the combination of נפשׁ (“life/soul”) with the verb ערה (“pour out”) obliges us to adopt a translation which associates death with bloodshed and, in this instance, sacrificial bloodshed" (Joseph Blenkinsopp, "The Sacrificial Life and Death of the Servant (Isaiah 52:13-53:12)," Vetus Testamentum 66, 2016, pp. 7-8). See his article for more on this point.
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________
Addendum: Isaiah 49:3 and the Individuality of the Servant Jaap Dekker has useful scholarship for this verse. He writes: "crucial for understanding the Servant Story in the book of Isaiah then is verse 3 of Isaiah 49. In many Bible translations this verse is translated as if the name of Israel again functions to identify the Servant here as being Israel, just as in the preceding chapters . . . The New Revised Standard Version for example translates this as: ‘And he said to me, “You are my servant, Israel, in whom I will be glorified.”’ Syntactically this translation is correct of course. But the colometry of this verse is:
וַיֹּ֥אמֶר לִ֖י עַבְדִּי־ אָ֑תָּה
יִשְׂרָאֵ֕ל אֲשֶׁר־ בְּךָ֖ אֶתְפָּאָֽר
In Hebrew poetry we have a bicolon here with a metre of 3 + 3 feet, in which the device of an ellipsis is used. This ellipsis refers to the words וַיֹּ֥אמֶר לִ֖י that are not repeated in the second line. Instead of repeating these words the second line is extended with the relative clause אֲשֶׁר־ בְּךָ֖ אֶתְפָּאָֽר thus filling out the second line making it a three feet colon and creating a verse with so-called pivot parallelism (a-b // b’-c; cf. Isa 45:1). Interpreting the name of Israel as a predicate the translation then becomes: ‘And he said to me, “You are my Servant. (He said to me:) Israel, in whom I will be glorified.”’ Or more specified as a second predicative: ‘You are my Servant. You are Israel in whom I will be glorified.’ (cf. Isa 44:21...)" (Jaap Dekker, “The Servant and the Servants in the Book of Isaiah,” Sárospataki Füzetek 16/3-4, 2012, pp. 38-39). Thus,
By way of paraphrasing God has said to him: You are my Servant. Now, you are Israel. And you are the one in whom I will be glorified, as I promised before to Israel (Isa 44:23). Now, you are destined to fulfill the mission of Israel, which it could not fulfill by itself because of its blindness. When Isa 49:3 is interpreted in this way, as referring to a prophetic figure appointed by the Lord to be his new Servant and destined to fulfill the mission of Israel, then it is at once clear why the Servant in the verses 5 and 6 immediately is distinguished from Jacob and Israel. This has always been embarrassing for exegetes of the Servant texts.
(ibid., 39)
In the immediate context outside of Isaiah 49:3, the Servant is clearly not Jacob-Israel as a nation (see also the various comments above). Isaiah 49:5-6 says the Servant has a mission to Jacob-Israel (as noted by Dekker), distinguishing the Servant from Jacob-Israel as a whole nation. See also the difference in the use of mispati when applied to Israel in Isaiah 40:27 ("why do you say, O Jacob, and speak, O Israel,“ My way is hidden from the Lord, and my right (mispati) is disregarded by my God.” Now look at Isaiah 49:4, which says: "but I said, “I [the servant] have labored in vain, I have spent my strength for nothing and vanity; yet surely my cause (mispati) is with the Lord...” This looks like a deliberate contrast with Jacob/Israel as a nation. Wilcox and Patron-Williams in their 1988 essay also write that: "The vividness of the detail of the presentation of the servant is extremely marked and goes beyond the possibilities of metaphor. For example, although the figure of being "called from the womb"; is used elsewhere (44.2, 26) of Israel, the phrase "the body of my mother" could hardly be used in that connexion. Nor is it clear what could be meant by Yahweh hiding Israel in v. 2 [49:2]" (pp. 90).
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________
Conclusion While you can find just about any view you wish among scholars on the Servant Songs, but the strong majority view, ever since the foundational work of Christopher North, is that the Servant emerges, within the dramatic movement of the Servant Songs, as an individual, and as a representative individual. That the Servant is an individual, at least in Isaiah 52:13-53:12, is a common view among scholarship. Joseph Blenkinsopp (who thinks the Servant is Isaiah in 53) affirms this picture when he writes:
“Ever since Christopher R. North surveyed the range of opinion on the identity of the Servant in 1948 (2d ed., 1956), no significant new options have emerged. While there was then and still is a strong critical preference for an individual rather than a collective interpretation, none of the fifteen individuals named as candidates by one commentator or another and listed by North has survived scrutiny.”
(Joseph Blenkinsopp, Isaiah 40-55, pp. 355).
James Patrick Ware reiterates this view in his book Paul and the Mission of the Church, Philippians in Ancient Jewish Context (Brill, 2005): "The tendency of the more recent literature is toward an individual interpretation, especially in regard to the third and fourth Songs" (pp. 590).
The majority view is that this individual is representative because he is mysteriously identified and united with Israel and the world, acting for Israel and the world in their stead, doing what they could not do for themselves, and that in the culminating fourth Song this representative individual suffers, is unjustly executed (a minority view claims he does not die because he is gloriously alive at the end of the poem, but that conflicts with the text), he is put to death for the sins of the many, buried, and then raised to life and glorified (a minority view says he is not alive at the close of the Song, because he clearly dies within the poem, but that conflicts with the text), all this that he might redeem Israel and bring the gentiles to God.
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